The Cold War had everyone under a moment of incredible tension. This political, social, economic, scientific and military confrontation that was the product of the end of World War II, had as protagonists the new and obvious leaders of the world: the United States and the Soviet Union.
It was not, but a succession of events that led the former USSR to fall from the beginning of Perestroika in 1985, the accident at the Chernobyl nuclear field in 1986, the Fall of the Berlin Wall in 1989 and the failed coup attempt in the Siberian country in 1991. This succession of events was crucial to an advantage of the Americans over this so-called war without war actions that could have damaged some of their civil or military populations. Hence his name did justice to this event.
However, the crucial point of this war did not come until October 1962. Cuba formerly maintained a close bond with the United States until the Caribbean country took measures that collided with US interests. This, thanks to the triumph of the Cuban Revolution in 1959 that left the dictator Fulgencio Batista in oblivion who had been constantly supported by the Americans. The US response, led by Jhon F. Kennedy, was clear: rupture of relations in 1961, imposition of the economic blockade, the departure of Cuba from the OAS and the failed attempt to infiltrate anti-Castro entities on the island to deter them from following the path communist.
Of course, the USSR considered it appropriate to place a new leader that would allow him to carry out the defense on the land that this new ideology would have adopted. The figure of Fidel Castro echoed his orders and allowed the implementation of missiles in his territory. This fact sought the parity between the actions previously carried out by the United States in Turkey and Italy, where they also had missiles in the direction of the main Soviet cities, including Moscow.
In the words of Nikolai Leonov, a retired general from the KGB, the crisis was not simply related to the withdrawal of missiles from Turkey and Cuba, respectively. It was not possible to solve all the problems with a simple exchange. Washington always led the way. The crisis in Cuba was a desperate attempt to equalize positions »
This situation marked a great tension on the island and the world. However, it was not until October 26 that Cubans were greatly disappointed to discover that both powers would begin a dialogue to end the confrontation. By then, the leader of the USSR, Nikita Khrushchev promised the withdrawal of the missiles in exchange for not intervening on the island.
On October 27, it marked the turning point, as Cuba shot down an American U-2 spy plane that killed the pilot. This fact reinforced the defenses of both despite what was agreed the previous day. Meanwhile, Castro said the U.S. planned an attack while the talks were taking place. This evidenced the desire of the islanders to participate in a major event such as a Third War; however, «If it were not for the missile crisis in Cuba, the country itself would not exist in its current form. The purpose of that maneuver was not to win, but to restore the ‘status quo’. But if we take into account that the USSR managed to convince Washington to withdraw its missiles from Turkey, Moscow achieved the main objective, «said Leonov.
It was precisely in October 1962 that the United States realized that it was also at risk and agreed to the agreement. The following month, the Soviet Union withdrew its war material from the island and the United States lifted the sea and air blockade on the island. This fact marked in history a step in evolution due to dissuasive strategies and the importance of dialogue that was not evident in the two previous wars. This would also lead to a better understanding of both powers as well as direct communication between the White House and the Kremlin to avoid any kind of misunderstanding. This line is known as the «Red Telephone».