What is the difference between Castillian Spanish and Spanish?

Yesterday most of us were awaiting the Oscars, but there was an appearance that caused controversy. Different dubbing actresses were presented singing the version in their native languages ​​of «Into the Unknown» (Mucho más allá in the Spanish version) of the animated film Frozen 2; however, the actresses that double at the Latin level and Spanish were presented with the «Spanish» and » Castillian  Spanish» categories. But what makes Castillian Spanish different from Spanish? 

According to the Royal Spanish Academy, both terms are valid; however, «Spanish» is usually the most ambiguous for the language spoken by more than four hundred million people in the world. Otherwise, the «Castilian» is the one corresponding to the Spanish speakers of Spain, since it corresponds to the region of Castile and thus it was constituted when the Spanish colonizers came to South America. The Castilian was a medieval dialect that was spoken in Castile, the language of the empire of Carlos V, while Spanish reaches other regions of the Peninsula.

How do we differentiate them?

  1. Accent and Pronunciation: In Spain, they pronounce «Z» as the «TH» (θ) of English, as does «C» when it precedes the vowels «E» and «I». In Latin America, on the other hand, both «Z» and «C» before «E» and «I» sound like an «S». In some parts of Argentina and Uruguay, the «LL» of words like llamando (calling), llorando (crying) and llover (raining) are not pronounced as a «Y» (as in most areas of Spain and Latin America), but as «SH».
  2. Grammar: If we address someone in Spanish, we must take into account the marked difference between the informal «TÚ» (YOU) and the formal «USTED» (YOU). But while  TÚ is used almost everywhere, only in Spain the difference in the plural is used: VOSOTROS is for informal use and USTEDES  for formal use. However, in Latin America, only USTEDES is used. They also have a different use of the past tense.
  3. Vocabulario: The names of things vary in relation to the region and the country where you are. For example, in Spain, a pen is called  «bolígrafo», while in Mexico they call it «pluma».
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