José Gabriel Condorcanqui, known as Túpac Amaru II was a Peruvian revolutionary, Incas descendant who sacrificed his life to liberate Peru from Spanish colonization. His great-grandmother was Juana Pilco-Huaco; the last Inca sovereign daughter, Túpac Amaru I, who was executed by the Spanish in 1572 by Viceroy Toledo order.
He was born on March 19th, 1738, in Cusco city. He took Túpac Amaru’s name for his great-great-grandfather, who was the Vilcabamba last Inca sovereign. This is a Quechua word that translated into English means «shining serpent».
Túpac Amaru II married Micaela Bastidas, she also gave his life for Peru Emancipation. After contracting nuptials, he was appointed territories that corresponds to him by inheritance Chief, according to Inca laws.
Due to the excellent education, he received from Jesuits in Cusco, he was a very prepared man, spoke three languages, had a very clear idea of freedom. He led the largest Indigenist movement and independence court during Peru Viceroyalty time. This revolutionary movement was an important precedent to achieve Peru Independence.
José Gabriel Condorcanqui was the first to ask for Latin American freedom from any dependency, from Spain and the monarch. This revolutionary proposal, not only implied a political separation but also sought the indigenous exploitation forms elimination in the mining area, townships goods and works distribution, alcabalas and customs.
Thanks to his revolutionary movement, the black slavery abolition was decreed for the first time in Latin America itself, on November 16th, 1780. However, in the face of this action, the Spanish authorities will eliminate the noble indigenous class and accept the repression against the Andean people, for fear that the situation will be repeated with them.
After Checacupe Battle in 1781, Túpac Amaru II was defeated and betrayed by his own people, who handed him over to the Spanish, the latter transferred him to Cusco, for his subsequent execution.
Attempts were made to dismember him alive and he was tied to four horses; one for each limb. But, they could not achieve it, so finally it was decided to decapitate him and later tear him to pieces on May 18th, 1781. Later, his mutilated body was exposed to different cities. His head was placed on a lance exhibited in Cusco, Tinta, his arms in Tungasuca and Carabaya; while his legs in Livitaca (current Chumbivilcas Province) and Santa Rosa (current Melgar Province, Puno).