The Industrial Revolution

The greatest transformation in the history of society that has occurred in recent centuries has been the product of the Industrial Revolution, which was a stage in which many compare with the technology that is currently being lived.

Development and consequences

Industrial Revolution is called the extraordinary process of development and radical transformation that operated in industry and commerce. In addition, it contributed to modify science, the media, and the transport system, as well as the uses, customs and general conditions of human existence.

This whole process started in the second half of the 18th century and during the 19th century. This was due to the intensive use of the machine in production, the investment of strong capitals (industrial capitalism), the desire to improve the living standards of the population and an excessive profit motive on the part of the entrepreneurs.

However, it generated serious problems of a social nature such as social class conflicts, the same that are still valid today. The Industrial Revolution has its antecedents in the portentous Era of Machinism, that era with an economic and social development that consisted of the exaggerated use of the machine and mechanical instruments for the industry.

Also at that time employees were obtained for large volume production. This would cause industrial mechanization.


The Industrial Revolution had two stages:

In its first stage, it was characterized by considerable achievements in agriculture, which were related to new cultivation techniques, modern irrigation systems, as well as the use of fertilizers. In addition, advanced instruments were obtained to improve the raising of cattle.

However, the most important activity was the expansion of the British industry from 1750, a date that marks precisely the beginning of this first stage, especially the textile industry.

The second stage arises from 1850. This stage is characterized by the consolidation and development of machines, such as the invigoration of industrial capitalism. All the aforementioned generated the rise of the Great Industry, in addition to the technical superiority of the western countries that allowed to exert a great political, economic or cultural influence in all humanity.

Inventions and discoveries

Technological instruments such as machines for dismantling, spinning and weaving cotton, steam engine (as a source of energy) were invented in the two stages of the Industrial Revolution. The textile industry, mining, and transport were the sectors that benefited the most.

Another discovery was the use of electricity for lighting and electric trams. In addition, they highlight the invention of the telegraph, the telephone, the radiotelegraphy, the dynamite, the refrigeration devices, the sewing machine, the construction of the railway tracks. As well as ships for the transport of merchandise and some destined for war.